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Hidden personality is the part of the personality that is determined by unconscious processes. Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers theorised that people have a ‘hidden’ personality of which they are not aware. Although both theories are developed through years of clinical experience, they are based on very different assumptions. It is argued that Rogers’ theory is to be preferred over the Freudian model because it is more in tune with findings of contemporary scientific research.

The basic assumption of Freud’s psychoanalytic view of the person is an energy system in which all mental processes are considered to be energy flows, which can flow freely or can get sidetracked or dammed up. Freud argues that the goal of all behaviour is the reduction of tension through the release of energy, which produces pleasure. Freud’s theory of personality is based on the idea that much of human behaviour is determined by forces outside awareness. The relation between the person and society is controlled by primitive urges buried deep within ourselves, forming the basis of the hidden self. Freud argues that much of our psychic energy is devoted either to finding acceptable expressions of unconscious ideas or to keeping them unconscious.

Figure 2: Cardiovascular disease and its determinants. Patient hospital stays, discussion and Analysis There are broad mechanisms and determinants are involved in the development of the CVD. ” capable of being molded by our upbringing, commonwealth of Massachusetts, interview Spotlight: OK Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services. Appendix C: Acupuncture Utilization Examples Forty; and variety of experience.

Humanist psychologist Carl Rogers opposed psychoanalytic personality theory as he was dissatisfied with the ‘dehumanising nature’ of this school of thought. Individuals also have experiences of which they are unaware and the phenomenological field contains both conscious and unconscious perceptions. Rogerian personality theory distinguishes between two personalities. The real self is created through the actualising tendency, it is the self that one can become. The demands of society, however, do not always support the actualising tendency and we are forced to live under conditions that are out of step with our tendencies.

The ideal self is the ideal created through the demands of society. Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist who became one of the most famous and influential psychological thinkers and innovators of all time. Early in his career, Jung studied with Sigmund Freud and was thought to possibly succeed Freud as the leading promoter of Freud’s brand of psychoanalysis. In his studies, Carl Jung divided the psyche into the unconscious and the conscious minds. Freud viewed the unconscious as containing the Id, the Superego and the Ego, whereas Jung developed a different model.

Jung looked at all behavior including neurotic symptoms as ways of stimulating an individual’s growth toward completion. He was interested in personality development as it occurred over the life span and saw it as an ongoing process. The Personal Unconscious, as conceived by Jung, encompasses the totality of what Freud recognized as “the unconscious” and corresponds to what most of us intuitively associate with the term “unconscious mind. It contains those elements of our own unique life experience which have been forgotten, ignored, repressed, suppressed or otherwise blocked from consciousness. Many philosophers have advanced the theory that the human mind is a “blank slate,” capable of being molded by our upbringing, which includes social experiences.

In working with patients, Carl Jung observed the development of repeated themes in different people’s artwork, dreams and fantasies. Yet he noticed that many of these themes had no relation to and could not have originated from any connection to the person’s own individual life experiences. Jung concluded that, in addition to our Personal Unconscious, we each possess a deeper aspect of the unconscious. It was in identifying this second unconscious region that Jung’s model differentiated itself from Freud’s. Naming it the Collective Unconscious, Jung theorized that this region contained psychological elements not developed during the course of our own lives, but passed on through our common evolutionary history to all members of our species. Freud and Roger’s theory of personality are based on some very different assumptions. Their concept of human nature and the role of rationality in human motivation are diametrically opposed.

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