Most stable binary chalcogenide glasses are compounds of a chalcogen and a group 14 or 15 element and may be formed in a wide range of atomic ratios. Not all chalcogenide compositions glass ionomer cement types pdf in glassy form, though it is possible to find materials with which these non-glass-forming compositions can be alloyed in order to form a glass. An example of this is gallium sulphide-based glasses. Amorphous chalcogenide materials form the basis of re-writable CD and DVD solid-state memory technology.
Uses include infrared detectors, mouldable infrared optics such as lenses, and infrared optical fibers, with the main advantage being that these materials transmit across a wide range of the infrared electromagnetic spectrum. Some chalcogenide materials experience thermally driven amorphous-to-crystalline phase changes. Intel claims that its chalcogenide-based 3D XPoint memory technology achieves throughput and write durability 1,000 times higher than flash memory. Electrical switching in chalcogenide semiconductors emerged in the 1960s, when the amorphous chalcogenide Te48As30Si12Ge10 was found to exhibit sharp, reversible transitions in electrical resistance above a threshold voltage.
If current is allowed to persist in the non-crystalline material, it heats up and changes to crystalline form. This is equivalent to information being written on it. The semiconducting properties of chalcogenide glasses were revealed in 1955 by B. Although the electronic structural transitions relevant to both optical discs and PC-RAM were featured strongly, contributions from ions were not considered—even though amorphous chalcogenides can have significant ionic conductivities.
At Euromat 2005, however, it was shown that ionic transport can also be useful for data storage in a solid chalcogenide electrolyte. The electronic applications of chalcogenide glasses have been an active topic of research throughout the second half of the twentieth century and beyond For example, the migration of dissolved ions is required in the electrolytic case, but could limit the performance of a phase-change device. Diffusion of both electrons and ions participate in electromigration—widely studied as a degradation mechanism of the electrical conductors used in modern integrated circuits. Cahn, Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, Elsevier Science Ltd, 2001.
Materials science: Changing face of the chameleon”. Chalcogenide glasses in Japan: A review on photoinduced phenomena. Anjum, Yaping Zhang, Xiaoming Yang, Ahmed Benslimane, Tien K. Hedhili, Mohammad Alsunaidi, and Boon S. US Patent 6511788 Archived September 26, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Optical nonlinearities in chalcogenide glasses and their applications. 07: Amorphous and Glassy Semiconducting Chalcogenides”.
A building in Canterbury – more glass than wall”. Lowering the polarizability of the material. Or “primary phase”, 07: Amorphous and Glassy Semiconducting Chalcogenides”. The migration of dissolved ions is required in the electrolytic case, the recycled glass saves on raw materials and energy. Perfume set from Soviet Union, materials science: Changing face of the chameleon”.
In Pallab Bhattacharya, Roberto Fornari, and Hiroshi Kamimura. This page was last edited on 15 November 2017, at 10:54. This article is about the material. A jar made of soda-lime glass. Although transparent in thin sections, the glass is greenish-blue in thick sections from impurities. Bubbles remained trapped in the glass as it cooled from a liquid, through the glass transition, becoming a non-crystalline solid. Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Many applications of silicate glasses derive from their optical transparency, giving rise to their primary use as window panes. Fused quartz is a glass made from chemically-pure silica. It has excellent resistance to thermal shock, being able to survive immersion in water while red hot. Most common glass contains other ingredients to change its properties. Stands heat expansion much better than window glass.