This article needs additional citations for verification. Techniques de sniping en pdf a broader coverage related to this topic, see Data scraping. Web scraping, web harvesting, or web data extraction is data scraping used for extracting data from websites.
Web scraping a web page involves fetching it and extracting from it. Therefore, web crawling is a main component of web scraping, to fetch pages for later processing. Once fetched, then extraction can take place. However, most web pages are designed for human end-users and not for ease of automated use. Web scraping is the process of automatically mining data or collecting information from the World Wide Web.
Sometimes even the best web-scraping technology cannot replace a human’s manual examination and copy-and-paste, and sometimes this may be the only workable solution when the websites for scraping explicitly set up barriers to prevent machine automation. Many websites have large collections of pages generated dynamically from an underlying structured source like a database. Data of the same category are typically encoded into similar pages by a common script or template. In data mining, a program that detects such templates in a particular information source, extracts its content and translates it into a relational form, is called a wrapper. By embedding a full-fledged web browser, such as the Internet Explorer or the Mozilla browser control, programs can retrieve the dynamic content generated by client-side scripts. These browser controls also parse web pages into a DOM tree, based on which programs can retrieve parts of the pages. There are several companies that have developed vertical specific harvesting platforms.
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The preparation involves establishing the knowledge base for the entire vertical and then the platform creates the bots automatically. The pages being scraped may embrace metadata or semantic markups and annotations, which can be used to locate specific data snippets. If the annotations are embedded in the pages, as Microformat does, this technique can be viewed as a special case of DOM parsing. There are efforts using machine learning and computer vision that attempt to identify and extract information from web pages by interpreting pages visually as a human being might.